For the rocket project, students got into groups of 2-3 and collaborated to design and build bottle rockets that we would launch into the sky. With my partner, Derek, I designed a very aerodynamic rocket, spending a few days to build or test our rocket until the exhibition. At the exhibition and test launches, the rockets were filled about halfway with water. Then, carbon dioxide was pumped into the bottles, charging the water, making it push against the bottle. Due to the opening in the bottom the rocket, the upward push was unopposed, making the rocket shoot up. Other than the rocket, Derek and I made a log of our work with the rocket, made a data table of our rocket, and typed up individual reflections of the project.

## Rocket Log

**Entry 1 - Work Day**

Today, we completed the parachute-nose cone coupling. We may also begin work on our fins if we have time.

**Entry 2 - Test Fire**

Today, we launched our rocket for the first time. We also finished the parachute, and hopefully, it will work.

**Entry 3 - Work Day**

It turns out that we need to make some adjustments to the parachute. During the launch, it ripped out of the rocket, so we need to re-attach it.

**Entry 4 - Work Day**

The band saw people were using to cut their fins has broken, which means we cannot cut our fins yet. We will just work out some minor adjustments, now.

**Entry 5 - Work Day**

Dave got a new band saw, and we have our fins and wooden shims cut. We need to glue them on, but Dave is gone, so the epoxy is not available. We will have to do it tomorrow

**Entry 6 - Work Day**

Today, we started working on our fins. We glued the fins to the wooden shims, and we will glue them to the rocket tomorrow. The launch is probably postponed due to weather. There is another test launch tomorrow.

**Entry 7 - Work Day**

Today, we finalized our rocket. The fins are glued on, and it will be ready to launch tomorrow.

**Entry 8 - Work Day**

Today, we took the rubber bands off the rocket fins. We are completely ready for launch.

**Entry 9 - Final Work Day**

Today, we just made a few final adjustments, and prepared ourselves for the launch. Our rocket is completely ready to fly at the launch, today at 5:00.

## Rockets Specs and FLight Information Data Table

## Reflection

Exhibition went well for our group. Our rocket design was practical, yet exquisite; the red food coloring was an added bonus. Derek and I worked well together. We both supplied our own ideas and materials necessary for our design. However, our rocket was not without a few flaws. The parachute did not deploy at the exhibition. I believe this can be attributed to the cone being too tight on the rocket; it wasn’t able to come off. Additionally, the wings were too heavy, and it slowed the rocket’s climb, substantially. However, despite our shortcomings, I am still very proud of my rocket, and I still consider it a success.

I learned a lot about my abilities during this project. I think I underestimated my enthusiasm and ambition before the project began. I was actually surprised to find myself very excited about the exhibition, and I was pleased to go to class every day to work on our rocket. As advice for next year’s group of freshman, I would recommend them to get their materials early. If you don’t have a certain rocket part by the necessary day, you may end up wasting an entire hour’s worth of work that could be spent refining your rocket. Every day counts. Although this project was a great, memorable assignment, it was simply a stepping stone for future projects in physics, and I dutifully look forward to them.

I learned a lot about my abilities during this project. I think I underestimated my enthusiasm and ambition before the project began. I was actually surprised to find myself very excited about the exhibition, and I was pleased to go to class every day to work on our rocket. As advice for next year’s group of freshman, I would recommend them to get their materials early. If you don’t have a certain rocket part by the necessary day, you may end up wasting an entire hour’s worth of work that could be spent refining your rocket. Every day counts. Although this project was a great, memorable assignment, it was simply a stepping stone for future projects in physics, and I dutifully look forward to them.

## COnclusion

The recorded data we had for our rockets was the observer distance, the opposite angle measure, and actual hang time. In order to acquire the height the bottle rockets reached, it was imperative to use trigonometry to solve for the unknown length. Cosine, sine, and tangent can be used to find an unknown side of a right triangle, using only one other side of the triangle and one degree angle, other than the right angle. Using the acronym soh cah toa, it's easy to remember whether sine, cosine, or tangent should be used to find the unknown side. Soh stands for sine, opposite, hypotenuse, cah stands for cosine opposite hypotenuse, and toa stands for tangent opposite adjacent. With the bottle rockets, students were meant to find the height their rocket traveled. They knew the distance from the launch zone and the data table, and they knew the degree angle formed by the line from the launch zone to the data table, and the hypotenuse of the right triangle. The side they knew was adjacent to the angle; the side they were trying to find was opposite the angle. Therefore, they had to use tangent, because only toa used both the opposite and the adjacent angles in the equation. The equation is TanA=a/b, where A equals the degree angle, b is the distance from the data table to the launch zone, and a is the height the rocket traveled. By plugging in the variables, it is very simple to acquire the length of any side of a right triangle, assuming you have the length of one side, and the degree measure of one angle.The total hang time of the rockets was recorded with stopwatches, but stopwatches aren't always accurate, so students used the equation t = √(max ht/((1/2)a)) to find their rockets' theoretical flight times. The calculation to find the velocity of a traveling object is distance divided by time. Because students knew the max heights of their rockets, it was simple for them to simply double the height, to find the distance of the complete trip, then divide it by the total hang time to find the rocket's velocity. The percentage error calculation between the theoretical and actual flight time of the rockets could be calculated with the equation ((Actual-Theoretical)/Theoretical)*100. The percentage error for "Da Black Rose" was 9%. The accuracy between the two times can be largely attributed to the fact that the rocket's parachute did not deploy. Because the equation for theoretical velocity uses terminal velocity, many rockets didn't have very accurate times, because parachutes slow down the rockets' descents substantially.